If like me you’ve jumped the fence as you couldn’t wait any longer for the UK launch, here are some of the things you can do with the Amazon Echo even thoughts it’s not officially supported in the UK.
I’ve organised by my own average day’s use plus a few other possible uses. Unsurprisingly many of the useful skills and requirements align with specific rooms. Rather more surprising is that I’ve actually found the bedroom to be where I require the most ‘assistance’.
It’s worth mentioning here that there are a host of other skills and native functions available in the US but not currently compatible in the UK although new skills are being launched every week. I’ll be updating skills as I find them.
All statements below are preceded by the wake command “Alexa”
Monday 7am (bedroom)
(Woken up by recurring alarm set previous night)
…"snooze” (snoozes alarm for 9 minutes)
…"stop” (stops timer)
…"cheer me up” (tells you a joke – its Monday morning after all!)
…"turn bedroom light on” (Phillips Hue lights (or others) required)
…"turn on the coffee maker” (requires smart plugs such as SmartThings)
…"play flash briefing” (types of news set by you including BBC news)
…"what’s in my calendar today?” (Gmail compatible)
…"what’s the weather in London like today?”
…"ask TrackR to find my phone” (TrackR skill – it then rings your phone)
…"will it rain today?”
…"train from Baker street to Oval” (When is My Train Skill provides train times on LU)
…"ask Magic 8 Ball if I should get an Uber to work” (Magic 8 Ball Skill)
…"ask Uber to request a ride” (Uber Skill although yet to get this working…)
Monday Eve (kitchen)
…"start 7-minute workout" (7 Minute Workout Skill HIT session)
…"ask Recipe Buddy how I make chicken picatta” (Recipe Buddy Skill)
…"set a timer for 20 minutes”
…"how many ounces in a pound”
…"play The Milk on Spotify” (connected with Spotify Premium)
…"pause / next track / louder” (standard audio controls for all outputs)
…"add chorizo to my shopping list”
…"ask Bartender, whats in a Tom Collins” (Bartender Skill)
…"ask Wikipedia about Donald Trump”
…"what is my sports update” (provides schedules and news for your predefined football teams for instance)
…"turn heating up 20%” (Nest Skill)
…"turn off living room lamp”
…"add meeting to my diary for 4pm tomorrow” (Alexa then follows with further questions)
…"cancel my alarm for tomorrow”
…"ask KAYAK how much does it cost to fly from London to Alaska” (KAYAK Skill)
…"ask mindfulness for a minute meditation" (‘1-Minute Mindfulness’ skill)
…"are we in the The Matrix” (https://soundcloud.com/internet-sounds/1054-are-we-in-the-matrix)
When a relative asks you over the dinner table; “so what are you doing right now at work”, it’s a usually a good time to talk about the weather, especially when programmatic sounds like a word you just made up (also its not even made its way into the Oxford English dictionary yet!) But never one to shy away from a challenge, I gave it a shot.
Of course to avoid utter confusion, I spared them endless acronyms (which I've added below) and to avoid subjecting the reader to more copy than I already have, there are some areas where some serious generalisations are going on, so be gentle!
A Basic Definition
What is programmatic? From a consumer perspective, its the geeky stuff that goes on in the background that results in you seeing an ad online for rooms in Paris from booking.com shortly after you just happened to be scouring the web for holidays in France.
As a media bod, we should know it simply as automation (or automated trading). Its the use of computers and software to speed up a set of manual processes that deliver an ad in front of a viewer that once took a lot longer. So, just think about programmatic in terms of what sat- navs did for car travel and marriages all over the world.
Our Lead Characters
Rather like any good love story – programmatic is simply a collection 'things that happen' which ultimately lead to the meeting of two people. In this instance, our two ‘lovers destined to meet' are the consumer, and for the sake of my Bieber loving niece, we called him Justin. And to keep my Dad's attention, we'd call the brand a Ford Capri.
Everyone understands the roles of the consumer (buyer) and the brands (seller) but it’s the supporting acts likes SSP’s and ad servers where it starts to get confusing. Although, without these supporting acts in our story, the two lead charters might not have met quite as quickly, or even at all (more of them later). Just like finding your perfect partner on Tinder vs. the old school method of an end of the night chat-up, Tinder is the programmatic conduit that ‘automated’ a few processes like…leaving your living room, getting dressed, talking, turning your head etc etc. Tinder has made it quicker and possibly cheaper to end up with ‘a happy ending’ just like programmatic trading.
So, as we mentioned, in this story, our two key heroines are played by Justin ‘the consumer’ and Ford ‘the brand’
The Back Story: The facts we need to know
What we know about Justin:
WE KNOW: There are people like Justin surfing the web all the time
WE KNOW: Justin likes cars. How? Well, the endless car videos, key words in emails and general browsing has left his personal, trackable tyre marks across the web. We also know he's around 18-24 and lives in California
What we know about Ford:
WE KNOW: Ford want to sell cars
WE KNOW: Ford want to show their advertising to people like Justin
WE KNOW: Ford want to put an ad in front of people like Justin because he has proven that he is interested in cars (because of his browsing)
WE KNOW: Ford are willing to ‘buy Justin's eye balls’ (attention) for the right price by paying a website to allow them to place their chosen ad in front of him
What we know about websites:
WE KNOW: Website owners (publishers) make money by selling Justin's valued attention
WE KNOW: 10 years ago, websites would sell these eye balls to advertisers directly. However, nowadays, they use 'middle men' to help offer these eyeballs to people who want to buy them, like Ford.
WE KNOW: These middle men add value to this process by offering more insight into who the audience is/where they have been etc and they can do all this at scale, quickly. Basically, the more facts they can offer on Justin, the higher the price they can charge.
WE KNOW: Websites have a piece of their page set aside to let ‘brands drop an ad in’ when Justin (or anyone else with their own specific interests) happens to visit.
The Programmatic Journey
Just before we get into the story, for ease, I have skipped over the role of the media agency and trading desk. However, without these guys, this process could not happen. In summary, they are inputting a brief (or set of audience / location criteria) that allows the systems to carry out all the calculations to deliver the right audience at the right price
So, the bullets above have set the scene...
The bullets below describe the processes that make up programmatic or automated trading that result in that Ford ad in front of Justin. All these points happen in a tenth of a second and are conducted by systems and software.
For a terminology overview, jump to the bottom of the blog.
We will come back to Justin but let’s skip to the demand side, in this case Ford.
So lets recap, we now have two primed groups – a seller (MSN.com) who knows what they have to sell and what he's worth, and a buyer (Ford) who knows what they want to buy (people like Justin) but don't yet know where to find them. These two sides of the fence are on the starting line ready to get down to business and so we’ll pick up where we left off with Justin.
If you got his far, well done. As you can see, what takes less than a tenth of a second takes a lot longer to break down. The above process is a summary, in reality, there is merging of those roles and responsibilities and the lines between DSP and SSP and DMPs are no longer as clear as I suggest above. This space continues to evolve at a rapid rate and undoubtedly this landscape will look very different in 12 months.
Feel free to drop me a line if you feel I can better articulate any of these processes.
Thanks for reading!
Just like any demand and supply system, something is being traded (eye balls / attention). So we have a buyer, a seller and others groups helping to value and facilitate the deal.
SSP: (Supply Side Platform): Businesses who have created platforms that enable the seller to more efficiently sell 'eye balls'. They are 'on the side' of the supplier so aim to get the best price for their publisher / website brand.
DSP: (Demand Side Platform): They are 'on the side' of and work for the 'demander' of the eye balls e.g Ford. Their job is to get the lowest price for the most valuable eye balls.
DMP: (Data Management Platforms): These businesses own data and aggregate it to build better pictures that help value the eye balls so SSPs can charge more and DSPs can value the eyeballs appropriately.
Ad Exchange: This is the digital market place where a lot of these trades occur
Ad Servers: These help deliver the right ad to the right location for the winning bidder
Article posted on Brand Republic in 2 parts: http://bit.ly/1NdcX2j
If you haven't heard - ‘Ad blockers’ could be the biggest thing that have happened to the Internet since kittens found a home on YouTube. The doom-mongers are heralding it as a the end of small online publishers, while others are a little more relaxed. But as Steve Jobs showed the music industry, what could be a disaster for one sector could sporn something great for another. Before we get into the opportunities for outdoor in part 2, let's dispel 4 myths about the threat of mobile ad blocking:
Ad blocking is not just ad blocking, its content blocking
For better or worse, this means you’ll be able to block cookies, images and other trackers that help identify you to advertisers.
Content blocking is not new to the internet, its new to mobile
Adblock and Adblock Plus already delivery ad blocking capabilities via your desktop browser. In an August 2015 report, PageFair showed that in 2014, UK ad blocking grew by 82% (12m uses). Google is already estimated to be losing 10% of its annual revenue to ad blockers.
Source: PageFair 2015
Content blocking will not automatically remove ads from iPhones
Updating to iOS 9 on Wednesday will not mean ad serving will be different on Thursday. Firstly you will have to be using Safari, secondly you have to download an app or ‘extension’ from the app store. Thirdly, you will have to go into settings to activate blocking.
Content blocking will not remove all ads from your Safari browsing experience
Content blockers aren't gunning for all mobile advertising. Banner ads however can be picked off relatively easily. Pre-rolls and native advertising will also be affected to different degrees.
Why is Apple allowing ad blocking?
Benjamin Poulain, an Apple engineer stated, “We have been building these features with a focus on providing better control over privacy”
I’d argue that this isn't what's going to sell it to the masses - the real benefit, as Kevin Bacon neatly puts it in the EE ad is, “people...why settle for buffer face?’ Content blockers will speed up mobile browsing. Faster mobile browsing means less data use and better battery life. Better battery life and browsing experience means more money in Apple's pocket. It also puts two fingers up to Google and pushes publishers to Apple’s news app and iAd network.
Expected speed increases: Credit: Owen Wiilaims at TNW
Put simply, it will tighten the noose on publishers’ and their ability to generate revenues via mobile browser based audiences which may force them into Apple's iAd ‘net(work)’. Apple also receive 30% of the ad revenues via this channel. Needless to say, iAds will never be affected by ad blocking because Apple has its ecosystem locked tighter than Fort Knox...
Content blocking is ignored at your peril
Apple’s announcement in June saw Criteo, a French based display advertising business take an overnight 7% hit in share price - at the time of writing, this has increased to a 20% drop since June ($45 to $36) - investors are clearly concerned.
The exponential growth of mobile ad spend will continue for the time being (spend increased 59% in 2014 to $1.6bn according to AA/Warc Expenditure report). The advertising community is waiting to see how consumers react but maybe now is the right time to start reviewing options and taking some risks - as a rather successful social media entrepreneur said:
“In a world that’s changing really quickly, the only strategy that is
guaranteed to fail is not taking risks”
A mobile screen audience but not as you know it
The ad industry and the rise of the ‘screen team’ in media agencies will hopefully be looking to spread their wings in terms of finding new, effective ways to access the mobile consumer. And who should be first on their call list? The scalable, digital out of home media owners such as DigiCom, Ocean, JCDecaux, Exterion and Clear Channel can bring a lot to the party.
Growth and advancements in targeting, measurement and reach offer a serious complement to any broad screen based campaign. The numbers are part testament to this - PwC recently reported that DOOH revenue is looking at a 20% growth between 2014 and 2019 to £729 million.
Digital outdoor is no ‘content blocking silver bullet’, but it undoubtedly offers some protection to the threats posed to brands looking to reach this audience. Every week we see further investment in DOOH screen networks, delivering huge audiences via connected sites during people's daily mobile screen journeys. And with no content blocking in sight, there is a clear argument that it should be getting a bigger bite of the online/video display budgets.
How content blocking will play out is still very much up for debate - consumer take-up of this technology is likely to be slow but all research shows content blocking is on the rise. Alternatively, mass migration to app based content consumption is where Apple is putting its chips. Another reaction could be a backlash from publishers via content blocking workarounds making it a never ending game of tech based cat and mouse.
The undeniable truth is that mobile advertising just got a bit more complicated. This sector may be smashing the revenue numbers right now but there is another media channel ready, willing and able to provide a screen based mobile audience - and this comes in the shape of digital out of home.
My love of automation is something I partly blame on the classic 80’s game of Mouse Trap – if you haven’t had the pleasure – check this out.
Mouse Trap was a miniature version of Wallace and Grommit’s breakfast making contraception – or a slightly higher brow analogy would be the beautiful ‘Heath Robinson’ machine in Honda’s – The Cog.
As a kid, the idea that I could do something over here that could make something else happen over there was the closest I’d ever come to having a super power. Fast Forward to 2015 and although the tools may be little different, I still get a small sense of childlike glee when my hall lights automatically come on when I get to the end of my street, or I get a photo emailed to me of the person ringing my doorbell outside. Automation and efficient use of our data is a relatively recent phenomenon. It’s also something we have a tendency to associate with Google or Facebook, but then who said it was only the big boys in the digital playground that could reap all the benefits? We can all leverage our devices and data with the right tools – this is where the likes of IFTTT and Zapier take centre stage.
“Who said it was only the big boys in the digital playground that could reap all the benefits from our data?”
What is IFTTT?
If This Then That (IFTTT) was founded in December 2010 by a 28 year, Linden Tibbets. At the end of 2014 it was valued at around $170m and has been touted as one of the most influential ‘Internet of Things’ companies around. Its simple purpose is to help automate your life. It does this by triggering an action (i.e sending an email, turning on your music) if a certain criteria is met (i.e your location/temperature) . If it sounds a bit complicated, it really isn’t - the beauty of IFTTT is its simplicity. I managed to get my first ‘recipe’ working within minutes.
A recipe is just a nice way of saying; if you combine two ‘things’, which you will likely already own or have access to, the resulting love child of these two technologies can do a whole lot more than if you hadn’t put them together. Or, back on the theme of 80’s TV shows – this is like merging Optimus Prime with Starscream – the result is a one very unbeatable and kick ass transformer.
Be an Auto-bot, not an Auto-not’
“IFTTT is like merging Optimus Prime with Starscream - the result is a kick-ass transformer”
And the important point here is once you’ve combined these technologies or ‘activated them’, it can continue to run in the background so you never have to lift a finger again. You’ll probably have already activated these benefits without realising. You’ve likely granted Google Maps permission to ‘talk’ to your phone so it can know your location through location services - the efficiency delivered here is that it means it will serve you taxi companies in your area and not ones based in London, Kentucky. Its worth mentioning at this point that Google Now, Siri and Cortana are making inroads into this type of automation but do not allow the degree of tailoring of IFTTT or compatibility across platforms that IFTTT can provide.
IFTTT Automation for Work and Creative Thinking
In this world of media and advertising, the principles of IFTTT are already hard at work in various guises. Weather triggered advertising is one of the most cited uses. In fact, Ross Webster from The weather Channel gave a great overview (include date). During my time at Amscreen, we delivered a simple but effective example by Ford through Mindshare and Kinetic - specific creative featured across the screen network when certain temperature based triggers were met. Automation like this is also seen within online and mobile based programmatic advertising that serves up relevant content when various audience targeting metrics are identified.
With the huge proliferation of data, the possibilities of triggered/automated advertising are only really limited to your imagination (and of course the publishers ability to activate it). Data plays an enormous role in our personal and work lives more than ever, but how many of us have consciously leveraged it for our own personal benefit?
IFTTT may just be a gimmick to some but its approach of encouraging us to play with data and platforms will probably help us look at how we deliver tangible benefits for brands through their own data. Ideas such as British Airways’ ‘Look Up’ delivered by OgilvyOne, Clear Channel UK, Posterscope and Carat is one such example of having fun with data and delivering something memorable. Someone once said;
“Serious play is not an oxymoron, it is the
essence of innovation”
These kinds of stand-out ideas are surely born from this philosophy.
So, just for starters, here are some of the quickest work based recipes you can implement that offers just a taste of the fun and genuinely time saving solutions that can be achieved with these kinds of platforms and principles:
Native – it’s never far from the headlines at the moment. We hear it continually referenced in the same breath as mobile, online and programmatic – it has the feel of something born out of the digital generation. If this is true, where does this leave Outdoor when it clearly lacks one of the often cited key elements of native; editorial context?
Despite the relatively recent coining of this phrase back in 2011 by the investor Fred Wilson – you can probably draw on various examples of where you’ve implemented ‘native content’ but it’s likely to have gone by a different name – one of my own first pieces of native advertising was from emap (Bauer) where I’d knock out the odd piece of copy evangelising about the new Tommy Girl perfume in Smash Hits, although we knew it as an advertorial…
Advertorials, or ‘ads disguised as content’ was how many people historically referred to this type of advertising. However, the tide has turned, it’s clear to all, now more than ever, that the advert should aim to add value to the viewers experience by seamlessly fitting advertising into the context of consumption.
So if native is all about seamlessly fitting in, which seems to be a consistent theme, does this mean you need the B52 bomber of good editorial to deliver your native advertising WMD (weapon of minimal distraction)? How can you slip in the odd relevant promoted word or tweet without the editorial context…? If editorial is key, surely native is entirely un-native to Outdoor advertising.
If you do a quick search for the definition of native, then editorial regularly pops up within the summary. Many claim editorial is intrinsic to delivering native ads. Other definitions explain it as advertising that matches the host platforms ‘form and function’ (style and purpose), which ensures it feels less like pushed ad content. None of these definitions work particularly well with Outdoor advertising as there is little editorial and no branded enviroments to seamlessly feed into.
But let’s ignore the definitions and terminology as it was coined in an era where everything was defined and led in the context of mobile and online. Instead, look at some of its principles of engagement; the real essence of native is that it is not disruptive but stimulating and relevant within the context of the consumer’s moment in time.
If we apply these two key principles of native to outdoor advertising, an obvious example might include sponsored weather feeds. The idea of offering something that the viewer appreciated were also key in the Time Out content on Exterion’s underground XTP’s that I helped deliver back in 2009. The proliferation of digital screens and better use of data to bring content to life means DOOH is full of native examples that provide a valuable piece of content at the right time in the right place.
There are other ways in which outdoor neatly embodies native. The area of interactivity such as experiential led content via touch screen, augmented reality or location specific vouchers and money off promotions all tick the box of enhancing (not negatively distracting) the consumers journey.
But it’s not just within the realm of digital outdoor that native OOH exists. Classic poster advertising also provides native ad content because after all, poster advertising IS the content. Unlike the average advertorial or sponsored tweet, the ad does not compete with other ‘physical’ attributes – instead it stands alone, providing an even greater opportunity to garner the undivided attention of the viewer.
In a similar vein, it is entirely non-disruptive. Outdoor is an opt-in channel as the viewer has the ability to ignore it if they choose to. Also, across most outdoor media owners, you’ll often hear the words ‘welcomed’ or ‘valued messaging’ cited from various research projects as a key benefit of the channel. These USP’s of outdoor are ultimately also a key element of a great native ad.
The difference between an OOH native ad and online or press ad is that the consumer is under no illusion as to what they are being served (and often welcome it) and so by its nature, outdoor advertising avoids any potential for a viewer feeling hoodwinked or distracted by what could be interpreted as unwelcome content. This is further reinforced by the fact that native ads often have to be sign-posted to avoid this potential confusion. We’ve all seen “THIS IS A PROMOTION” in the top left corner of the page and for some, this is can be an invite to skip it, which means the ad has to work even harder to grab the viewers’ attention.
So outdoor ads are the content, competing only with themselves in being able to deliver the right message at the right time. Also, as the most established medium around, it has been an intrinsic part of our physical and advertising landscape for generations. If there was ever one channel that can claim to fit seamlessly into our lives, delivering content on our daily journeys, surely Outdoor is the most authentic and established form of native advertising there is.
What would the digital-out-of-home sector look like if it wasn't the outdoor community nurturing it into maturity?
Original article featured on: http://mediatel.co.uk/newsline/2015/02/24/the-nurture-nurture-debate-of-digital-and-traditional-ooh/
What do you get if you take a media owner or three, the oldest medium in town and then combine it with a spanking new one? On the upside, you find yourself in one of the fastest growing and most exciting sectors around, on the down side, you realise you haven’t got the foggiest as to how to build it, sell it or combine it with you current estate so as to avoid the dreaded portfolio cannibalisation.
So, what would or could the Digital-out-of-home (DOOH) advertising sector world look like if it wasn’t the Outdoor community nurturing this sector into maturity? Let’s just look at a couple of reasons how it was that outdoor screen media came into this sector’s hands in the first place.
Whatever media platform you happen to work on, audience is king, and this is no different in Out-of-home (OOH). However, when it comes to accessing these audiences there is one fundamental differentiator that sets Outdoor apart; audience is intrinsically linked with contracts, landlords and estate owners. Whether its TfL, various National Rail contracts or local councils, the strength of an OOH product is also largely down to the strength of the audiences these enviroments deliver. And because the contracts are often locked down, the audiences are too, making it hard for challengers to create and launch viable new digital screen networks. It was therefore almost inevitable that it would be OOH media owners who would develop this new media channel.
Having worked for CBS Outdoor (now Exterion Media) at the time of launch, I can vouch for the fact it was no easy transition. Take a business whose most ‘new media’ experience was whacking a QR code on a poster across a Tube station the size of a box of matches…(insert obvious health and safety risk) and challenge them to create a national network of connected screens delivering day part targeting and live feeds. This was always going to be interesting.
Thankfully, many of these technical challenges have and are being overcome and we’re seeing some great campaigns utilising some new technologies to deliver stand out, award winning work.
In terms of digital and traditional working in harmony within these media owner portfolios, DOOH seemed to offer traditional Outdoor business’s the opportunity to tap new revenues and provide new full motion; flexible, connected content that traditional simply couldn’t deliver. DOOH was the cherry on the cake and a new revenue stream. The challenge however came with the fact that it was the existing OOH spenders who saw the opportunity to improve their efficiency of their current and future activity. To dissuade this shift of spend, there was some clever jiggery-pokery with the rates, incentive deals for new spenders even some conditional selling was implemented but ultimately, media owners realised that the only way to safeguard existing spending was to limit the flexibility of the DOOH medium or price it so high that it simply didn’t stack up as a sensible buy. But who can blame them, day-parts don’t always make great financial sense when you can instead be earning revenues and commissions based on 2 week campaigns and lumpy print margins.
When it comes to asking the question; “what helps media channels realise their true potential?” The company or sector that ultimately is responsible for ‘raising’ it clearly makes a big difference. For instance, if we had seen a Google or totally a new player emerge to deliver DOOH networks, do you believe we’d still be selling in 2 week blocks? Would we still be having a debate about a hybrid programmatic approach? Considering the fact that only the word ‘Digital’ separates these two media channels, these sectors simply aren’t natural bed fellows.
We could argue with some confidence that the OOH players just weren’t the best parents to bring this burgeoning new media sector up. Not only this, OOH media owners were no more qualified to manage a digital screen network than Justin Bieber is to conduct the London philharmonic orchestra. Arguably if Mum and Dad and their specialist cousins hadn’t favoured their first child at the detriment of their second quite so much, DOOH’s development could have been so very different.
Of course, this is possibly the way it was always meant to be. If a new product or sector had the potential to have a detrimental effect on your revenues, then the most sensible decision is to own it (or kill it) and carefully manage its development. You only have to look at Google and Facebook to see this strategy in full force.
The real question now is; what, if anything is going to change that will enable DOOH to realise its full potential? Well change is no doubt afoot with JCDecaux pulling out of the OMC, and a new OMC Chairman stepping into the role in the form of Mark Craze, the first non-industry executive. This can only be a good thing for the sector.
In all likelihood, a move towards realising the full potential of DOOH is going to be a slow transition. Despite rumblings of a new Digital only industry body starting, it’s going to be hard for this to carry much weight without the buy in of the big three which again is not on the cards in the immediate future. Digital only specialists would solve some issues, but come with an array of problems that no one is quite prepared to deal with. Alternatively the sale of one of the larger digital networks to a non-outdoor player would shake things up but who would be willing to let go of the portfolio that is the main driver of growth in their business?
A centralised, independently managed inventory management system would be hugely beneficial but of course this takes the negotiation power out of the hands of the OOH media owner. This may work for the world of online where supply of audience and spots is vast, but in the finite and relatively small world of Outdoor, this is a hard sell.
Changes that may put us on the right course are those in the area of rudimentary ‘trading’ desks, where a number of digital OOH media owners are blocking off segments of their loop are then are able to more easily migrate content across multiple networks through a single business and platform. The concept of this is a simple and good one; make it easier to buy digital OOH. However, right now we still have more software platforms, varying terminology and methods of data collection and audience measurement than you can shake a stick at and this also needs to be resolved so as to create any consistency and ease of planning/buying – maybe this is a first point of call for our new man at the OMC.
If these basic platforms for aggregating DOOH airtime gets some traction and demand begins to gain momentum from the buying community, this may provide media owners the confidence to free up more airtime with the knowledge that they can deliver comparable revenues across a two week period through an increased brand count (possibly using a standardised dynamic pricing model).
In essence, the buying and selling of DOOH in the model of traditional OOH way will continue as long as it is more profitable to do so. Whatever happens, it’s going to be an tumultuous year for these sectors.